Helen Foster Snow papers

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Helen Foster Snow papers

Dates: 1907-2000

Series one deals with Helen Foster Snow's life before traveling to China in 1930. Documents relate to her early days in Cedar City, Salt Lake City, and her education at the University of Utah. Coupled with this biographical material is her prodigious research into her own ancestry and genealogy, which drew her into the wider circle of local and regional history in Madison, CT and the greater New England area. This portion of the collection dovetails, topically, Helen's later attempts to find and write of her roots. Series two concerns the end of her Utah experience and the beginning of her adventures in China. It spans from her entry into China in 1931to her departure from China to the Philippines in 1941. From a historical perspective, this is the richest series in the collection–letters, memos, communiques, and newspapers document this tumultuous decade in China's history. Included in this series is her marriage to Edgar Snow, her involvement in the radical Student Movement opposing the policies of Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek, her involvement in the nascent Communist Party, and her early interviews with prominent leaders such as Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-Tung) and others. Also included is her legendary work with the Chinese Cooperative movements. It should be noted that Helen Foster Snow did, unfortunately, find it necessary to sell some of her papers dealing with cooperatives to Stanford University in the late 1950s. Therefore, a small portion of this significant movement is housed in the Hoover Institute in Palo Alto, California. Researchers interested in pursuing work on Helen Foster Snow's cooperative work should consult those materials. Series three details her published and unpublished writings. She wrote, over her sixty-year career, numerous books, essays, op-ed pieces, articles, poetry and short stories. These are arranged and described by genre and divided into additional sub-series to aid the researcher in identifying which of her works to consult within the series. We have, to the best of our ability, bifurcated them into published and unpublished categories. In many instances, titles and dates of creation are not clear. It has been difficult to ascertain any kind of genesis or evolution of most of her drafts, inasmuch as she did not date nor label her working drafts. Series four is composed of Helen's correspondence from 1941 until her death in 1997. The series is arranged into two sub-series. The first contains correspondence arranged chronologically, while the second contains correspondence arranged by topic. Series five is composed solely of photographs. These photographs predate her birth and conclude with her death in 1997. The bulk of the photographs were taken in Asia and are the most valuable component of this series. Most of the photographs are identified, some are questionable, and a few remain unidentified. These images document early Chinese leaders (e.g. Mao Tse-Tung and Chou En-Lai), urban cities and rural countrysides, many historic places before the Japanese occupation, and her husband's work in pre-war China. The photographs number in the thousands, and most are black and white. In addition to the photographs of Asia, there are a sizable number of photographs from her personal life and work. There are also color photographs of her return to China in the 1970s. Please see the Separation Statement for additional information on this series. Series six includes a number of audio-visual materials related to Helen's life and the collection in general. This series contains video tapes and audio tapes on a variety of subjects (e.g. personal interviews, trips to China, etc.). Series seven contains a large variety of miscellaneous articles. These are documents which, although part of her life and legacy, do not fit neatly into any of the series previously prescribed. Biographical papers, written by and about Helen, are located here, as are numerous documents on her husband, Edgar Snow. This series contains scattered essays on women's issues, legal papers, and miscellaneous documents. Oversized artifacts, many of them from the Chinese government, are also housed here. Series eight is an addendum to the original collection. Boxes 1-179 were compiled and housed by Harvard Heath and his student assistants from 1997-2001. However, a number of items were, apparently, left out of the collection proper. These materials can all be found in this series, albeit in a somewhat incongruous fashion. While this is not a "miscellaneous" series per se, materials on a large variety of topics can be found here.

  • Extent: 179 boxes (89.5 linear ft.)
  • Creator: Snow, Helen Foster, 1907-1997
  • Call Number: MSS 2219
  • Repository: L. Tom Perry Special Collections; 20th Century Western & Mormon Manuscripts; 1130 Harold B. Lee Library; Brigham Young University; Provo, Utah 84602; http://sc.lib.byu.edu/
  • Access Restrictions: There are restrictions on this collection. For access, seek authorization from the Curator of 20th & 21st Century Western & Mormon Manuscripts.
Languages and Scripts
The collection is divided into eight series: 1. Helen Foster Snow family papers, 1833-1999; 2. Helen Foster Snow Asia Years papers, 1927-1997; 3. Helen Foster Snow published and unpublished manuscripts, 1919-1995; 4. Helen Foster Snow correspondence, 1940s-1990s; 5. Helen Foster Snow photographs, 1907-1997; 6. Helen Foster Snow audio-visual materials, 1937-1999; 7. Helen Foster Snow miscellaneous materials, 1726-1997; and 8. Helen Foster Snow collection addendum, 1925-2000.
Conditions of Use
It is the responsibility of the researcher to obtain any necessary copyright clearances. Permission to publish material from Helen Foster Snow collection must be obtained from the Supervisor of Reference Services and/or the Special Collections Board of Curators.
The present register is the product of several persons' work. The donors of the Helen Foster Snow collection, Sheril and Garth Bischoff, deserve special thanks for their untiring efforts to not only bring this collection to Brigham Young University, but also in assisting the staff in numerous ways throughout this process. Their knowledge, enthusiasm and desire to offer their services has been an essential element in compiling this collection. In addition to the Bischoff's, several volunteers, especially Morris & Donna Petersen and George & Joy Bennion, offered substantial aid. Special thanks goes to Paul and Karen Hyer for their involvement and commitment. Their counsel and aid in facilitating the donation of the collection to Brigham Young University has been invaluable. Thanks also to Eric Hyer for garnering financial and institutional support for the collection, acting as liaison with the administration, and for producing the PBS documentary on Helen Snow's life. Thanks also to Gail King of the library, Gary Williams, professor of Asian languages, Michael Murdock and David Wright, professors of History, Cheryl Brown and Sandra Rogers, both former Associate Vice Presidents for International Affairs, and the Kennedy Center, under directors Lanny Britsch and Don Holsinger. Special thanks must also go to those many students who helped process, catalog, and complete this project: Robert Packer, Jonathon Fry, Jennifer Myers, Tami, Chen, Kati Cao, Cameron Turley, Jennifer Stoker, Julie Kaufman, Jenna Smith, Misty Armstrong, Amy Stone, Kimberly Bowden, Stacy Parker, Melinda Strong, Lisa Lyons, Amy Pett, Nathan Tolman, and Taylor Dix.
Preferred Citation
Initial Citation: MSS 2219; Helen Foster Snow papers; 20th Century Western and Mormon Manuscripts; L. Tom Perry Special Collections, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University. Following Citations: MSS 2219, LTPSC.
Custodial History
Materials were transferred from Helen Foster Snow's private collection.
Acquisition Information
Donated; Helen Foster Snow.
Separated Material
Accompanying the some 450 cartons of manuscript and photograph material was Snow's library of some 200 books. These were rather eclectic in nature, reflecting her own idiosyncratic tastes and interests. These books were alphabetically inventoried (the inventory appears at the end of the register). After the Gift and Acquisitions Department followed their normal protocols, the majority of the books were either placed in the general stacks, Special Collections, or sold during library book sales.
Other repositories housing Helen Foster Snow material are the Hoover Institution at Stanford University (manuscripts), Columbia University (oral histories), University of Missouri-Kansas City (manuscripts), China Society for People's Friendship Studies in Beijing, China (manuscripts and memorabilia) and the Edgar and Helen Snow Studies Center in Xi'an, China (manuscripts, memorabilia, and artifacts).Bibliography of the Helen Foster Snow Personal Library: Abend, Hallett, Tortured China, (Ives Washburn: NY) 1930. First edition, hardcover. Ahlers, John, Japan Closing the "Open Door" In China, (Kelly & Walsh, Limited: Shanghai, Hong Kong, Singapore) 1940. First edition, hardcover, signed by author. Airey, Willis, A Learner in China, A Life of Rewi Alley, (The Caxton Press & the Monthly Review Society: Christchurch, New Zealand) 1970. First edition, hardcover, papers folded into book, marginalia. Alley, Rewi, Sandan, An Adventure in Creative Education, (Caxton Press: Christchurch, New Zealand) 1959. First edition, hardcover, three copies. Alley, Rewi, At 90: Memoirs of My China Years, (New World Press: Beijing) 1986. First edition with annotations by Helen Foster Snow in it. He wrote about her in it. Alley, Rewi, The People Have Strength, (Published by the author: Peking) 1954. First edition, paperback. Alley, Rewi, Beyond the Withered Oak Ten Thousand Saplings Grow, (The Caxton Press: Christchurch). Paperback, no date given. Alley, Rewi, The Freshening Breeze, (New World Press: Peking) 1977. First edition, hardcover, signed by author. Alley, Rewi, China's Hinterland - in the Leap Forward, (New World Press: Peking) 1961. First edition, hardcover, inscription by author. Alley, Rewi, Amongst Hills and Streams of Hunan, (New World Press: Peking) 1963. First edition, paperback, signed by author. Alley, Rewi, Gung Ho, (The Caxton Press: Christchurch) 1948. First edition, two copies, paperback, typed page with Alley's poem folded into book. Alley, Rewi, This is China Today, (The Rewi Alley Aid Group: Christchurch) 1951. First edition, paperback. Alley, Rewi, Yo Banfa! (The New Zealand - China Society and the Progressive Book Society: Auckland, New Zealand) 1976. Paperback, signed by author. Alley, Rewi, Refugees From Viet Nam in China, (New World Press: Beijing) 1980. First edition, hardcover, signed by author. Alley, Rewi, Travels in China 1966-71, (New World Press: Peking) 1973. First edition, hardcover, signed by author. Anderson, Jack and Ronald W. May, McCarthy, The Man, the Senator, the "Ism", (The Beacon Press: Boston) 1952. Ayscough, Florence, Chinese Women Yesterday & To-Day, (Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston) 1937. Hardcover. Ball, J. Dyer, Things Chinese, (Kelly & Walsh, Ltd.: Shanghai) 1925. Hardcover. Belden, Jack, Still Time to Die, (Harper & Brothers Publishers: NY and London) 1943 & 1944. First edition, hardcover. Belden, Jack, China Shakes the World, (Harper & Brothers: NY) 1965 & 1966. 513 pp., not bound, loose pages tied with string. Berkov, Robert, Strong Man of China, the Story of Chiang Kai-Shek, (Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston) 1938. First edition, hardcover. Bernstein, Joseph, Spotlight on the Far East, (Institute of Pacific Relations and Webster Publishing Company: St. Louis, Dallas, Los Angeles). Paperback. Bertram, James M.,Crisis in China, (Macmillan and Company, Ltd.: London) 1937. First edition, hardcover, marginalia. Bertram, James, Beneath the Shadow, (The John Day Company: NY) 1947. First edition, hardcover. Binyon, Laurence, The Flight of the Dragon, (John Murray: London) 1927. Hardcover. Bodde, Derk, China's Cultural Tradition, (Rinehart & Company, Inc.: NY) 1957. Paperback. Borg, Dorothy, American Policy and the Chinese Revolution, (American Institute of Pacific Relations and The Macmillan Company: NY) 1947. First edition, hardcover. Bosworth, F. F., Christ the Healer, (Fleming H. Revell Company: Old Tappan) 1973. Paperback. Boulger, Demetrius Charles, China, (Peter Fenelon Collier & Son: NY) 1900. First edition, hardcover. Braun, Otto, A Comintern Agent in China 1932-1939, (Stanford University Press: Stanford) 1982. Bound photocopy of book. Buck, Pearl S., The Good Earth, (The Modern Library: NY) no publication date - original copyright date was 1931. Hardcover. Buck, Pearl S., Dragon Seed, (The John Day Company: NY) 1942. First edition, hardcover. Budd, Charles (translator), Chinese Poems, (Oxford University Press: London, NY, Toronto and Melbourne) 1912. First edition, hardcover. Bushell, Stephen W., C.M.G., B.Sc., M.D., Chinese Art, vol. 2, (Published Under the Authority of the Board of Education: London) 1924. Paperback. Bushell, Stephen W., C.M.G., B.Sc., M.D., Chinese Art, vol. 1, (Published Under the Authority of the Board of Education: London) 1924. Paperback, no front cover. Carlson, Evans Fordyce, Twin Stars of China, (Dodd, Mead & Company: NY) 1940. First edition, hardcover, signed by author. Carter, Charlotte and Dyson Carter, We Saw Socialism, (Canadian - Soviet Friendship Society: Toronto) 1951. Paperback. Casselman, Arthur Vale,It happened in Hunan, (Continental Press: Philadelphia) 1953. First edition, hardcover. Ch'en, Jerome, Mao and the Chinese Revolution, (Oxford University Press: London, Oxford, NY) 1972. Paperback. Chang, H. H., Chiang Kai-shek, Asia's Man of Destiny, (Doubleday, Doran and Company, Inc.: Garden City, NY) 1944. First edition, hardcover. Chang, Kwang-chih, The Archaeology of Ancient China, (Yale University Press: New Haven and London) 1972. Paperback. Chapman, H. Owen, The Chinese Revolution 1926-27, (Constable & Co., Ltd.: London) 1928. Hardcover. Chapple, Geoff, Rewi Alley of China, (Hodder and Stoughton: Auckland, London, Sydney) 1980. First edition, hardcover. Che-yu, Cheng, Oriental and Occidental Cultures Contrasted: An Introduction to "Culturology", (The Gillick Press: Berkeley, CA) 1943. First edition, hardcover, signed by author. Chen, Chang-Feng, On the Long March with Chairman Mao, (Foreign Languages Press: Peking) 1972. Paperback. Chen, Sophia H., The Chinese Women and Four Other Essays, 1934. Signed by author, no publisher, location or date given, paperback. Cheung, T. K., Ex-CIA Man: In and Out of China, (Asian Research Service: Hong Kong) 1973. First edition, paperback. Chi, Li, The Beginnings of Chinese Civilization, (University of Washington Press: Seattle and London) 1957. Paperback. Chi'en Hsiao, Etching of a Tormented Age, (George Allen & Unwin, Ltd.,: London) 1942. First edition, signed by author (?) in Chinese, hardcover. Chiang Nan-hsiang and others, The Roar of a Nation–Reminiscences of the December 9th Student Movement, (Foreign Languages Press: Peking) 1963. Paperback. China Today, Resistance and Reconstruction, (The Central Union of Chinese Students in Great Britain and Ireland) 1943. Paperback. China Welfare Institute (compilers), The Forty Years of the China Welfare Institute, (China Welfare Institute). Paperback, no location or date given. China Welfare Institute (compilers), The Twenty Years of the China Welfare Institute, (China Welfare Institute: Shanghai) 1958. Paperback, two copies. Chinese Government Railways, Handbook of Information, Fares, etc., (Railway Through Traffic Administration: Peking) 1919. Paperback. Chun, T'ien, Village In August, (The World Publishing Company: Cleveland and NY) 1942 and 1943. Hardcover, two copies. Clayton, Lauralee, and Warner P. Lord, Madison, Three Hundred Years by the Sea, (Eastern Press, Inc.: Madison). Paperback, four copies. Cohn, Roy, McCarthy, (The New American Library: NY) 1968. Committee of Concerned Asian Scholars, China! Inside the People's Republic, (Bantam Books: NY, London, Toronto) 1972. Paperback. Condliffe, J. B., China To-Day: Economic, (World Peace Foundation: Boston) 1932. First edition, hardcover, marginalia. Coye, Molly Joel and John Livingston, China, Yesterday and Today, (Bantam Books: Toronto, NY, London) 1975. Paperback. Creel, H. G., Chinese Thought, From Confucius to Mao Tse-tung, (The New American Library of World Literature: NY) 1960. Paperback. Creel, Herrlee Glessner, The Birth of China, (John Day, in Association with Reynal & Hitchcock: NY) 1937. First edition, papers inserted. Creel, Herrlee Glessner,Ph.D., Sinism, A Study of the Evolution of the Chinese World-View, (The Open Court Publishing Co.: Chicago) 1929. First edition, hardcover. Croll, Elisabeth, The Women’s Movement in China, (Anglo-Chinese Educational Institute: London). Paperback. Crow, Carl, China Takes Her Place, (Harper & Brothers: NY and London) 1944. Hardcover, first edition. Crow, Carl, Foreign Devils in the Flowery Kingdom, (Harper & Brothers Publishers: NY and London) 1940. First edition, hardcover. Dawson, Miles Menander, LL.D. (editor), The Wisdom of Confucius, (International Pocket Library: Boston) 1932. Paperback. De, Zhu, Selected Works of Zhu De, (Foreign Languages Press: Beijing) 1986. 450 p. paperback. Deane, Hugh, Good Deeds & Gunboats, (China Books & Periodicals: San Francisco) 1990. First edition, hardcover, signed by author. Deane, Hugh, Remembering Koji Ariyoshi: An American GI in Yenan, (US - China People's Friendship Association: Los Angeles) 1978. Paperback. deKeijzer, Arne J. and Fredric M. Kaplan, The China Guidebook, (Eurasia Press: NJ and J. B. Lippincott Company: Philadelphia & NY) 1979. Paperback. Dey, S. K.,Nilokheri, (Asia Publishing House: Bombay, etc.) 1962. First edition, hardcover. Dimond, E. Grey, Inside China Today, ( W. W. Norton & Company): NY and London) 1983. First edition, hardcover, signed by author. Dutt, R. Palme, The Problem of India, (International Publishers: NY) 1943. Hardback. Eisenhower, Dwight D.,Mandate For Change, 1953-1956, (Doubleday & Company, Inc.: Garden City, NY) 1963. Eisenhower, Dwight D., Waging Peace, 1956-1961, (Doubleday & Company, Inc.: Garden City, NY) 1965. Elegant, Robert S., China's Red Masters, (Twayne Publishers: NY) 1951. First edition, hardcover. Eleventh National Congress, The Eleventh National Congress of the Communist Party of China (Documents), (Foreign Languages Press: Peking) 1977. First edition, hardcover. Enlai, Zhou, Selected Works of Zhou Enlai, vol. 1, (Foreign Languages Press: Beijing) 1981. Hardcover, first English edition. Epstein, Israel, The Unfinished Revolution in China, (Little, Brown and Company: Boston) 1947. First edition, paperback, contains carbon copy review of book. Epstein, Israel, The Unfinished Revolution in China, (Little, Brown and Company: Boston) 1947. First edition, hardcover. Epstein, Israel, Notes on Labor Problems in Nationalist China, (International Secretariat, Institute of Pacific Relations: NY) 1949. Report, paperback, corner of book eaten away. Epstein, Israel, Tibet Transformed, (New World Press: Beijing) 1983. First edition, hardcover. Epstein, I., The People's War, (Victor Gollancz, Ltd.: London) 1939. First edition, hardcover, signed by author. Evans, Rowland and Robert Novak, Lyndon B. Johnson: The Exercise of Power, (The New American Library: NY) 1966. Fairbank, John King, The United States and China, (The Viking Press: NY) 1968. Paperback. Fairbank, John King, The Great Chinese Revolution 1800-1985, (Harper & Row: NY) 1986 & 1987. Paperback. Fairbank, John King, Chinabound, A Fifty-Year Memoir, (Harper & Row: NY) 1982. First edition, hardcover, signed by author. Falconer, Alun, New China: Friend or Foe?, (The Naldrett Press: London) 1950. Paperback. Fang, Percy Jucheng and Lucy Guinong J. Fang, Zhou Enlai - A Profile, (Foreign Languages Press: Beijing) 1986. 238 p. paperback. Fitch, Janet, Foreign Devil, (Chinese Materials Center: Republic of China) 1981. First edition, hardcover, signed by author, paper inserted. Fo, Sun,China Looks Forward, (The John Day Company: NY) 1944. Hardcover. Forman, Harrison, Report From Red China, (Henry Holt and Company: NY) 1945. First edition, hardcover. Foster, John, M., Geology of The Bismark Peak Area North Tintic District Utah County, Utah, (BYU Dept. of Geology: Provo) August, 1959. A thesis by Helen’s brother. French Made Easy Fifteen Easy Lessons, np, nd. Paperback textbook. Fung, Yu-Lan, Ph.D., A comparative Study of Life Ideals, (The Commercial Press, Ltd.: Shanghai) 1925. First edition, hardcover. Galbraith, John Kenneth, A China Passage, (Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston) 1973. First edition, hardcover. Gangulee, N., The Teachings of Sun Yat-Sen, (The Sylvan Press: London) 1945. Hardcover. General Chiang Kai-Shek and the Communist Crises, articles from Shanghai newspapers, (China Weekly Review Press: Shanghai). Hardcover, no date given. Giles, Herbert A. (translator and annotator), Strange Stories From a Chinese Studio, (Kelly & Walsh, Limited: Shanghai, Hong Kong, Singapore) 1926. Paperback, front cover missing. Government of India Ministry of Commerce and Industry, Report of the Working Group on Industrial Co-operatives, (Government of India Press: New Delhi) 1958. Paperback. Grajdanzev, Andrew J., Modern Korea, (International Secretariat Institute of Pacific Relations: NY) 1944. First edition of English translation, two copies, hardcover. Granet, Marcel, Chinese Civilization, (Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., Ltd.: London and Alfred A. Knopf: NY)1930. First edition, hardcover. Grant, Marion Hepburn, Fort Saybrook, (Fort Saybrook Monument Park Association: Old Saybrook) 1985. Paperback. Green, Gil, The New Radicalism, Anarchist or Marxist? (International Publishers: NY) 1971. First edition, paperback. Greene, Felix, China, The Country Americans are Not Allowed to Know, (Ballantine Books: NY) 1961 & 1962. 448 p. paperback. Hahn, Emily,The Soong Sisters, (Garden City Publishing Co., Inc.: Garden City, NY) 1945. Hardcover. Hall, Gus, The Only Choice, Peaceful Coexistence, (New Century Publishers: NY) 1963. Paperback. Hamilton, John Maxwell, Edgar Snow, A Biography, (Indiana University Press: Bloomington and Indianapolis) 1988. Hardcover, first edition. Han-Seng, Chen,Landlord and Peasant in China, (International Publishers: NY) 1936. First edition, hardcover. Han-Seng, Chen,Industrial Capital and Chinese Peasants, (Kelly and Walsh, Ltd.: Shanghai) 1939. First edition, paperback. Hart, Henry H.,The Hundred Names, (University of California Press: Berkeley) 1935. Hardcover. Hayes. L. Newton, The Great Wall of China, (Kelly & Walsh, Ltd.: Hong Kong and Singapore) 1929. Hardcover. Heilbroner, Robert L., The Worldly Philosophers, (Simon and Schuster: NY) 1961. Paperback. Hellman, Lillian, The Children’s Hour, (Alfred A. Knopf: NY) 1935. Hardback. Highlights of Chinese History, (China Reconstructs: Peking) 1962. Paperback. Hinton, William, Fanshen, A Documentary of Revolution in a Chinese Village, (Vintage Books, A Division of Random House: NY) 1966. First edition, paperback. Hogg, George, I See a New China, (Little, Brown and Company: Boston) 1944. Hardcover, first edition. Holden, Reuben, Yale in China, (The Yale in China Association, Inc.: New Haven) 1964. First edition, hardcover. Hosie, Lady, Portrait of a Chinese Lady, (William Morrow and Company: NY) 1930. First edition, hardcover. Hsiung, S. I., Lady Precious Stream, (Liveright Publishing Corp.: NY and Metheun & Co. Ltd.: London) 1935. First edition, hardcover. Hsiung, S. I. (translator), The Romance of the Western Chamber, (Liverlight Publishing Corporation: NY) 1936. First edition in English, hardcover. Hsu, Yung Ying, A Survey of Shensi-Kansu-Ninghsia Border Region Part II, Economy and Military, (International Secretariat Institute of Pacific Relations: NY) 1945. Not bound, not published. Hsu, Yung Ying, A Survey of Shensi-Kansu-Ninghsia Border Region Part I, Geography and Politics, (International Secretariat Institute of Pacific Relations: NY) 1945. Not bound, not published. Hsueh-Chin, Tsao and Kao Ngoh, translated by Chi-Chen Wang, Dream of the Red Chamber, (George Routledge & Sons, Ltd.: London) no date given. Hardcover, paper folded into. Hubbard, G. E., The Temples of the Western Hills, (La Librairie Francaise: Peking and Tientsin) 1923. First edition, paperback. Hunter, Robert and Forrest Davis, The "New" Red China Library, (Constructive Action, Inc.: CA) 1966. Paperback. Hunter, William C.,The ‘Fan Kwae’ at Canton Before Treaty Days 1825-1844, (Oriental Affairs: Shanghai) March 1938. Hardback. Isaacs, Harold R. (editor), Five Years of Kuomintang Reaction, (China Forum, Shanghai) May, 1932. Paperback reprinted from the special May Edition of the China Forum. Isaacs, Harold R., The Tragedy of the Chinese Revolution, (Secker and Warburg: London) 1938. First edition, hardcover, marginalia. Israel, John, The Chinese Student Movement , 1927-1937, (Hoover Institution, CA) 1959. Paperback resource. Israel, John and Donald W. Klein, Rebels and Bureaucrats, China's December 9ers, (University of California Press: Berkeley, Los Angeles, London) 1976. First edition, hardcover, signed by author. Israel, John, Student Nationalism in China, 1927-1937, (Stanford University Press: Stanford, CA) 1966. First edition, hardcover, signed by author, letter from author into book. James, Neill, Petticoat Vagabond in Ainu Land and Up and Down Eastern Asia, (Charles Scribner's Sons: NY) 1942. First edition, hardcover, papers folded into book. Japan's War in China, (China Weekly Review Press: Shanghai). Paperback. Jenner, W. J. F. (editor), China, A Photohistory 1937-1987, (Thames and Hudson: London) 1988. First edition, hardcover. Johnson, Haynes and Bernard M. Gwertzman, Fulbright, The Dissenter, (Doubleday & Company, Inc.: Garden City, NY) 1968. Kai-Shek, Chiang, China's Destiny, (Roy Publishers: NY) 1947. First edition in English, hardcover. King, Alan with Jack Skhkurman, Help! I'm a Prisoner in a Chinese Bakery, (E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc.: NY) 1964. First edition, hardcover. Koningsberger, Hans, Love and Hate in China, (The New American Library: NY) 1967. Paperback. Kulp, Daniel Harrison, Ph.D., Country Life in South China, The Sociology of Familism, vol. 1, (Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University: NY) 1925. First edition, hardcover. Laffitte, J., French Self-Taught by the Natrual Method. With Phonetic Pronunciation. (E. Marlborough & Co., Ltd.: London) nd. Paperback without a cover. Lang, Olga,Chinese Family and Society, (Yale University Press: New Haven) 1946. First edition, hardcover. Latham, Earl, The Communist Controversy in Washington, From the New Deal to McCarthy, (Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts) 1966. Latourette, Kenneth Scott, The Chinese, Their History and Culture, vols. 1 & 2, (The Macmillan Company: NY) 1934. First edition, hardcover. Lattimore, Owen and Eleanore Lattimore, The Making of Modern China, A Short History, (Franklin Watts, Inc.: NY) 1944. First edition, hardcover. Lattimore, Owen and Eleanore Lattimore, The Making of Modern China, A Short History, (W.W. Norton and Company, Inc.: NY) 1944. First edition, hardcover. Lattimore, Owen, Solution in Asia, (Little, Brown and Company: Boston) 1945. First edition, no cover. Leang-Li, T'ang, Wang Ching-Wei, (China United Press: Tientsin, Shanghai, and Canton) 1931. First edition, hardcover. Leang-Li, T'ang, The Inner History of the Chinese Revolution, (George Routledge & Ans, Ltd.:London) 1930. Hardcover, first edition. Lee, Peter H. (editor), Flowers of Fire, Twentieth-Century Korean Stories, (University of Hawaii Press: Honolulu) 1974 & 1986. Paperback. Legge, James, D. D., LL.D., (translator), The Four Books, (The Chinese Book Company: Shanghai) no date given. First edition of English translation, hardcover, papers folded into, marginalia. Ling, Ding, Miss Sophie's Diary and Other Stories, (Chinese Literature: Beijing) 1985. First edition, paperback. Ling, Ding, The Sun Shines Over The Sanggan River, (Foreign Languages Press: Beijing) 1984. First edition, paperback, inscription by author(?) in Chinese. Maddox, Gaynor (editor), Russian Cook Book for American Homes, (Russian War Relief, Inc.: NY) 1942. Paperback. Maloubier, Eugene F., Moore, Justin H., A.M., PH.D., First Book in French, (The Macmillan Company: New York) 1919. Hardback. Man, Wong (translator), Poems From China, (Creations Books: Hong Kong) 1950. First edition, paperback, inscription by author. Manschreck, Clyde Leonard, The Reformation and Protestantism Today, (Association Press: New York) 1960. Paperback. Marx and Angles, Critique of Political Economy. (no title page). Mayers, William Frederick, The Chinese Reader's Manual, (Presbyterian Mission Press: Shanghai) 1924. Hardcover. Merrill, Arch, A River Ramble: Saga of the Geneses Valley, (Louis Heindl & Son: NY) 1945. Ming-Ting, Cze (translator), Short Stories From China, (Martin Lawrence Ltd.: London). Paperback. Morath, Inge and Arthur Miller, Chinese Encounters, (Farrar, Straus, Giroux: NY) 1979. First edition, hardcover. Myrdal, Jan and Gun Kessle, China: The Revolution Continued, (Vintage Books, A Division of Random House: NY) 1970 & 1972. Paperback. Myrdal, Jan, China Notebook, 1975-1978, (Liberator Press: Chicago) 1979. Paperback. New Archaeological Finds in China, (Foreign Languages Press: Peking) 1974. Paperback, two copies. Noyes, Henry,China Born, (China Books & Periodicals, Inc.: San Francisco) 1989. Hardcover, signed by author, marginalia, paper into book. Peck, Graham, Two Kinds of Time, (Houghton Mifflin Company: Boston) 1950. First edition, hardcover. Petrucci, Raphael, Chinese Painters, A Critical Study, (Brentano's Publishers: NY) 1920. First edition in English, hardcover. Ping, Ching and Dennis Bloodworth, Heirs Apparent, (Farrar, Straus and Giroux: NY) 1973. First American printing, hardcover. Powell, John B., My Twenty-five Years in China, (The Macmillan Co.: NY) 1945. First edition, hardcover. Pringle, J. M. D. China Struggles for Unity, (Penguin Books, Ltd.: Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England) 1939. Paperback. Reese, Nedra Watkins, Personal History of Nedra Watkins Reese, (Printed by Author: Orem, UT) 1977. Reese, Thomas Whittaker, Personal History of Thomas Whittaker Reese, (Printed by Author: Orem, UT) 1978. Resolution of CPC History, (Foreign Languages Press: Beijing) 1981. Paperback, first edition. Roots, John McCook, Chou, An Informal Biography of China's Legendary Chou En-Lai, (Doubleday & Company, Inc.: NY) 1978. Hardcover, first edition, signed by author. Rorty, James and Moshe Decter, McCarthy and the Communists, (The Beacon Press: Boston) 1954. First edition, hardcover. Rovere, Richard H., Senator Joe McCarthy, (Harcourt, Brace and Company: NY) 1959. Rowe, David Nelson, China Among the Powers, (Harcourt Brace and Company: NY) 1945. First edition, advance copy for review (see notes in front of book), hardcover. Salisbury, Harrison E., The New Emperors, (Little, Brown and Company: Boston, Toronto, London) 1992. First edition, hardcover, inscription by author. Salisbury, Harrison E., To Peking -and Beyond, A Report on the New Asia, (Quadrangle Books: NY) 1973. First edition, hardcover, pages folded into book. Salisbury, Harrison E., The Long March, (Harper & Row, Publishers: NY) 1985. Hardcover, inscription by author. Salisbury, Harrison E., Tiananmen Diary, (Little, Brown and Company: Boston, Toronto, London) 1989. First edition, paperback. Sarka’r, Shrii Prabha’t Rainjana, The Human Society, (A’nanda Pu’rn’ima: Ranchi-5) 2nd edition. 21-4-70. Paperback. Schumann, Julian, Assignment China, (Whittier Books, Inc.: NY) 1956. First edition, hardcover. Shaw, Lau, Rickshaw Boy, (Reynal & Hitchcock: NY) 1945. Hardcover. Sheean, Vincent, Personal History, (Garden City Publishing Company, Inc.: NY) 1937. Hardcover. Shi, Qin (compiler), China 1992, (New Star Publishers: Beijing) 1992. Paperback, two copies. Shih, Kuo-Heng, China Enters the Machine Age, (Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Massachusetts) 1944. Hardcover, possibly first edition. Silva, Anil de, Chinese Women and Freedom, (Kutub Publishers: Bombay) 1945. First edition, inscription by author, "To Madame Sun Yat Sen to whom this book is respectfully dedicated", hardcover. Siu, Helen F. and Zelda Stern, Mao's Harvest, (Oxford University Press: NY) 1983. First edition, hardcover. Smedley, Agnes, Battle Hymn of China, (Alfred A. Knopf: NY) 1943 & 1945. Hardcover. Smedley, Agnes,China Fights Back, (Victor Gollancz Ltd: London) 1938. First edition, hardcover. Smedley, Agnes, The Great Road, The Life and Times of Chu The, (Monthly Review Press: NY) 1956. First edition, hardcover. Smedley, Agnes, China's Red Army Marches, (The Vanguard Press: NY) 1934. First edition, hardcover. Smith, Arthur H., D. D., Chinese Characteristics, (Fleming H. Revell Company: NY, Chicago, Toronto, London and Edinburgh) 1894. First edition, hardcover, marginalia. Snow, Edgar,Journey to the Beginning, (Random House: NY) 1958. Hardcover, first edition, inscription to Nym from author (her ex-husband). Snow, Edgar, Journey South of the Clouds, (University of Missouri Press: Columbia and London) 1991. First edition, hardback, inscription to Helen F. Snow from book's editor. Snow, Edgar, Living China, Modern Chinese Short Stories, (Reynal & Hitchcock: NY). Hardcover, no date. Snow, Edgar, The Battle of Asia, (Random House: NY) 1941. Hardcover. Snow, Edgar, Far Eastern Front, ( Harrison Smith & Robert Haas: NY) 1933. Hardcover, first edition. Snow, Edgar, The Long Revolution, (Random House: NY) 1972. Hardcover, first edition. Snow, Edgar, The Other Side of the River: Red China Today, (Random House: NY) 1962. Hardcover. Snow, Edgar, The Pattern of Soviet Power, (Random House: NY) 1945 and (Thacker & Co., Ltd.: Bombay) 1946. Two copies, hardcover, 1945 copy is first printing. Snow, Edgar, People On Our Side, (Random House: NY) 1944. Five copies: four hardcover, one paperback; one hardcover copy is signed by author. Snow, Edgar, Red Star Over China, (Modern Library: NY) 1944. Hardcover, three copies, book dedicated to Nym Wales. Snow, Edgar, Red Star Over China, (Grove Press, Inc.: NY) 1968. Hardcover (revised edition). Snow, Helen Foster, The Chinese Communists, Sketches and Autobiographies of the Old Guard, (Greenwood Publishing Company: Westport, Connecticut) 1972. Hardcover, two copies. Snow, Helen Foster, The Congress of Furious Women, (Madison, Conn.) 1980. Hardcover, no publisher, handwritten author's note in front states that this is the only copy bound, author's signature. Snow, Helen Foster, Hearts and Flowers, The Case of a Small Town, Connecticut, 1980. Hardcover, signed by author, not published. Snow, Helen Foster (Nym Wales),Inside Red China, (Da Capo Press, Inc.:NY) 1939, 1977 & 1979. Thirteen copies, four paperback, seven hardcover, two copies xeroxed and bound in plastic cover; ALSO one copy of pre-published manuscript; (1939 version is a first edition). Snow, Helen Foster, Lines of Communication, (Unpublished) 1980. Spiral bound. Snow, Helen Foster, My China Years, (William Morrow and Company: NY) 1984. First edition, 9 copies: four hardcover, six paperback, one no binding. Snow, Helen Foster, My China Years, (Harrap: London) 1984. First edition, two copies, hardcover. Snow, Helen Foster, C.G., Notes on the Early History of Madison, Connecticut, which was East Guilford Before 1826, (unpublished) 1980. Unpublished book, hardcover. Snow, Helen Foster, The Saybrook Story, A Dramatized History, Connecticut, 1978. Hardcover, no publisher, typed pages inserted. Snow, Helen Foster, Unlacquered Tales from China. Spiral bound, wrapped in plastic, unopened. Snow, Helen Foster, Women in Modern China, (Mouton & Co.: Paris) 1967. First edition, hardcover, four copies, one copy signed by the author. Starobin, Joseph, Paris to Peking, (Cameron Associates, Inc.: NY) 1955. First edition, hardcover. State Department Employee Loyalty Investigation, Hearings Before a Subcommittee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, (Government Printing Office: Washington) 1950. Paperback. State University of Tirana, Problems of the Struggle for the Complete Emancipation of Women, (Gamma Publishing: NY) 1975. Paperback. Stein, Gunther, The Challenge of Red China, (Whittlesey House, McGraw-Hill Book Company: NY and London) 1945. First edition, hardcover. Strong, Anna Louise, China's Millions, (Knight Publishing Co.: NY) 1935. First edition, hardcover. Strong, Tracy B. and Helene Keyssar, Right in Her Soul, (Random House: NY) 1983. First edition. Sung, Kim Il, On Juche in Our Revolution, vol. 1, (Weekly Guardian Associates, Inc.: NY) 1977. Paperback. Sunoo, Harold Hakwon, America's Dilemma in Asia: The Case of South Korea, (Nelson Hall: Chicago) 1979. First edition, hardcover. Suyin, Han, The Morning Deluge, Mao Tsetung and the Chinese Revolution 1893-1954, (Little, Brown and company: Boston, Toronto) 1972. First edition, hardcover. Suyin, Han, A Mortal Flower, (G. P. Putnam's Sons: NY) 1965 & 1966. 413 p. hardcover. Tang, Peter S. H., Communist China Today, Vol. 2: Chronological and Documentary Supplement, (Frederick A. Praeger, Publishers: NY) 1958. First edition, hardcover. Taylor, Mrs. Howard, Borden of Yale '09, (China Inland Mission: Philadelphia) 1943. Hardcover. Terrell, John Upton, War for the Colorado River, Volume Two: Above Lee's Ferry, (The Arthur H. Clark Company: Glendale, California) 1965. Tereshtenko, V .J., Cooperative Education, (Federal Works Agency, Work Projects Administration for the City of New York). Terrill, Ross, The White-Boned Demon, (William Morrow and Company, Inc.: NY) 1984. First edition, hardcover. Terrill, Ross,Mao, A Biography, (Harper & Row: NY) 1980. First edition, hardcover. Terrill, Ross, 800,000,000: The Real China, (Delta Publishing Co., Inc.: NY) 1971 & 1972. Paperback. The Holy Bible, (The New York Bible Society: NY). Hardcover. The New York Times, Report form Red China, (Avons Books: NY) 1972. Paperback. The Research Office for Rewi Alley's Works of the Chinese People's Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries and China Reconstructs Magazine, Rewi Alley, (China Reconstructs Press: Beijing) 1988. First edition, 2 copies - one signed by compilers, paperback. The Red Sun Lights the Road Forward for Tachai, (Foreign Languages Press: Peking) 1969. First edition, paperback, book of photographs. Thomas, Lately, When Even Angels Wept, (William Morrow & Company, Inc.: NY) 1973. Thomas, S. Bernard, Labor and the Chinese Revolution, (Center for Chinese Studies, The University of Michigan: Ann Arbor) 1983. First edition, hardcover, signed by author. Tong, Hollington K., Chiang Kai-Shek, (The China Publishing Company: Shanghai) 1937. First edition, hardcover, two copies. Tsetung, Mao, Selected Works of Mao Tsetung, vol. 5, (Foreign Languages Press: Peking) 1977. 518 p. paperback. Tsetung, Mao et al., China: The March Toward Unity, (Workers Library Publishers: NY) 1937. Paperback. Tsetung, Mao, Six Essays on Military Affairs, (Foreign Languages Press: Peking) 1971. Paperback with plastic cover. Tse-Tung Mao, Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-Tung, (Foreign Languages Press: Peking) 1966. Paperback, first edition. Tuchman, Barbara W., Notes From China, (Collier Books: NY) 1972.Paperback. U. S. News and World Report, A New Look At Red China, (U. S. News and World Report, Inc.: Washington, D. C.) 1971. Paperback. United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation Project Feasibilities and Authorizations, (United States Government Printing Office: Washington, D. C.) 1957. United States Senate, Hearings Before a Select Committee to Study Censure Charges, (United States Government Printing Office: Washington, D. C.) 1954. United States Senate One Hundred Fist Congress, U.S. Policy Toward China Hearing before the Committee on Foreign Relations, (U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington) 1990. Villalba, May-an (editor), Alien Fingerprints, (CCA - URM: Peking) 1986. Paperback. Wales, Nym, China Builds For Democracy, (Kitabistan, Allahabad: India) 1941, 1942 and 1976. Hardcover, two copies, first edition (1941). Wales, Nym, Red Dust, (Stanford University Press: Stanford, CA) 1952. First edition, hardcover, two copies, one from the collection of Eleanore Roosevelt. Wales, Nym (Helen F. Snow), My Yenan Yearbooks, 1961. Two copies, one spiral bound, wrapped in plastic - unopened, one bound in hardcover. Wales, Nym (Helen Foster Snow) and Kim San, Song of Ariran, A Korean Communist in the Chinese Revolution, (Ramparts Press: San Francisco) 1941. Five copies, four paperback, one hardcover. Wales, Nym, New China, (Eagle Publishers: Calcutta) 1944. Hardcover. Wales, Nym, The Chinese Labor Movement, (Books for Libraries Press: Freeport, NY) 1970. Hardcover, two copies. Wales, Nym, Fables and Parables, (Philosophical Library: NY) 1952. First edition, hardcover. Wang, Chi-Chen (translator), Contemporary Chinese Stories, (Columbia University Press: NY) 1944. First edition, hardcover. Wang, Chi-Chen (translator), Ah Q and Others, Selected Stories of Lu shun, (Columbia University Press: NY) 1941. First edition of English translation, hardcover, inscription by translator. Wang, Chi-Chen (translator), Traditional Chinese Tales, (Columbia University Press: NY) 1944. First edition, hardcover. Wang, Tsi C. PH. D.,The Youth Movement in China, (New Republic, Inc.:NY) 1927. First edition, paperback. Wang Xing (editor), China Remembers Edgar Snow, (Beijing Review: Beijing) 1984. Paperback 1st printing. Warren, Susan, China's Voice in the United Nations, (World Winds Press: NY) 1974. Paperback. Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of Pennsylvania, Life Everlasting in Freedom of the Sons of God, (Watchtower Bible and Tract Society of New York: NY) 1966. Hardback, first edition. Watkins, Arthur V., Enough Rope, (Prentice-Hall, Inc.,: Englewood Cliffs, NJ and University of Utah Press: Salt Lake City) 1954. Watkins, Arthur V., Enough Rope, (Prentice-Hall, Inc.: Englewood Cliffs, NJ) 1969. Watkins, Charles L. and Floyd M. Riddick, Senate Procedure, Precedents and Practices, (United States Government Printing Office: Washington, D. C.) 1958. Wei, Katherine and Terry Quinn, Second Daughter, (Little, Brown and Company: Boston, Toronto) 1984. First edition, hardcover. Wei, Francis C. M., The Spirit of Chinese Culture, (Charles Scribner's Sons: NY) 1947. First edition, hardcover. White, Theodore H. and Annalee Jacoby, Thunder Out of China, (William Sloane Associates: NY) 1946. First edition, paperback. Williams, Edward Bennett, One Man's Freedom, (Atheneum: NY) 1962. Who's Who in China, Biographies of Chinese Leaders, (The China Weekly Review: Shanghai) 1936. Hardcover. Who's Who in Communist China, vol. 1 and vol. 2, (Union Research Institute: Hong Kong) 1969 and 1970. First edition, hardcover. Who's Who in Communist China, (Union Research Institute: Hong Kong) 1966. First edition, hardcover. Who's Who in Asian Studies, (Asian Research Service: Hong Kong) 1975. Paperback. Willfogel, Karl August, New Light on Chinese Society, (International Secretariat, Institute of Pacific Relations: NY) 1938. First Edition, paperback. Williams, Edward Thomas, China, Yesterday and Today, ( Thomas Y. Crowell Company: NY) 1923. Hardcover. Williams, Edward Thomas, A Short History of China, (Harper & Brothers: NY and London) 1928. First edition, hardcover. Williams, S. Wells, LL.D., The Middle Kingdom, vols. 1 & 2, (W. H. Allen & Co.: London) 1883. Hardcover. Williams, S. Wells, LL.D., The Middle Kingdom, Volume 1, (W. H. Allen & Co.: London) 1883. Hardcover. Wilson, Dick, Zhou Enlai,A Biography, (The Viking Press: NY) 1984. 2 copies, 330 p. paperback, 350 p. hardcover with index, papers folded into book, marginalia. Windield, Gerald F., China: The Land and the People, (William Sloane Associated, Inc.: NY) 1948. First edition, hardcover. Witke, Roxanne, Comrade Chiang Ch'ing, (Little, Brown and Company: Boston, Toronto) 1977. First edition, hardcover, note papers in book, marginalia. Woodhead, H. G. W., The China Yearbook, 1938, (The North-China Daily News & Herald, Ltd.: Shanghai) 1938. Hardcover. Wu, Sylvia, Memories of Madame Sun, (Dennis - Landman: Santa Monica, CA) 1982. First edition, paperback. Xiaoping, Deng, Selected Works of Deng Xiaoping, (Foreign Languages Press: Beijing) 1984. Hardcover. Xing, Wang (editor), China Remembers Edgar Snow, (Beijing Review: Beijing) 1982. First edition, paperback. Yakhontoff, Victor A., The Chinese Soviets, (Coward-McCann, Inc.: NY) 1934. Hardcover, first edition. Yat-Sen, Sun, Dr., San Min Chu I, (The Commercial Press, Ltd.: Shanghai) 1930. Paperback, marginalia. Young, C. W. H., New Life for Kiangsi, (The China Publishing Co.: Shanghai) 1935. First edition, hardcover. Yu-Lan, Fung, translated by Derk Bodde, A History of Chinese Philosophy, (Henri Vetch: Peiping) 1937. First edition, hardcover. Yutang, Lin (editor), The Wisdom of China and India, (Random House: NY) 1942. Hardcover. Zen, Sophia H. Chen (editor), Symposium on Chinese Culture, (China Institute of Pacific Relations: Shanghai) 1931. First edition, hardcover.
Other Finding Aids
Item- and file-level inventory available online. http://files.lib.byu.edu/ead/XML/MSS2219.xml
Subject Terms
Alley, Rewi, 1897-1987; Deng, Xiaoping, 1904-1997; Mao, Zedong, 1893-1976; Snow, Edgar, 1905-1972; Zhou, Enlai, 1898-1976; Zhu, De, 1886-1976; Beijing (China); Connecticut; Genealogy; India; International Relations; Japan; Journalism, Pictorial; Philippines; Photojournalism; Politics, Government, and Law; Shanghai (China); Utah; Xi'an Shi (China); Yan'an Shi (China); Zhongguo gong chan dang
Genre / Form
Certificates; Letters; Manuscripts; Paintings; Pamphlets; Photographs; Poetry; Slides (Photography); Videotapes
Processing Information
Processed; Harvard Heath (Curator 20th Century Collections) & Lisa Lyons Van Tassell (Student Assistant) - Edited and Completed by Taylor M. Dix (Student Assistant); March 2004.
Appraisal Information
Utah and American West and LDS cultural, social, and religious history (20th Century Western & Mormon Manuscripts collection development policy, 5.VII, 2007). This collection contains elements pertaining to international affairs, genealogical history including memoires of pioneer travelers, and history pertaining to the church of Jesus of Latter-day Saints.
Finding Aid ID Number
Finding Aid Title
Snow (Helen Foster) papers
Finding Aid Author
Finding aid prepared by Harvard Heath, Lisa Lyons Van Tassell, and Taylor M. Dix
Finding Aid Creator
This finding aid was produced using the Archivists' Toolkit 2014-03-09T04:05-0600
Finding Aid Language
Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA) grant, 2007-2008
Biographical Info:

Biographical History

Helen Foster Snow (1907-1997) was an American reporter and author.

Helen Foster Snow was born on September 21, 1907 in Cedar City, Utah to Hannah Davis and John Foster. In the 1850s, her Mormon pioneer ancestors, the Fosters, left Nauvoo, Illinois to join the Mormon exodus west to the Utah Territory. Her Mormon heritage would figure prominently in Helen's life and she would devote a major portion of her later life to family history and genealogy.

Both of her parents were, by pioneer standards, well educated and encouraged Helen to develop her literary and intellectual talents. From her earliest years, Helen was a precocious child. Hannah Foster enjoyed showing off how three-year-old Helen could recite over 250 poems from memory. In school Helen excelled, becoming the spelling bee champion and earning her friends' appellation as "the walking dictionary." Memorizing and reciting came easily to Helen. She always enjoyed reading and writing, both prose and poetry, and by 1920 she had written her first play, which her seventh grade class performed.

At the age of fifteen, Helen, wanting to capitalize on a better educational system, moved from Cedar City to Salt Lake City and attended West High School. Appreciating Helen's potential, her parents wanted her to have access to the best available educational opportunities in Utah. In addition to her studies, she maintained an active social life, engaging in activities ranging from drama and theater to student government leadership, being elected vice-president of her senior class. Much of her extra-curricular time was spent editing the school yearbook and assisting the vice-principal with social projects.

Helen wanted to follow her father's footsteps and attend Stanford University. However, family finances and a father's urging led her to the University of Utah instead. At the suggestion of a friend, Helen initiated a "salon" of sorts. In an old sign painting shop in the city, Helen and ten other friends gathered to discuss art, music, and literature. In China, Helen would again establish a salon with students that were agitated by China's passivity towards Japanese aggression.

Helen always had two overarching ambitions for her life. First, Helen had always felt that she was destined to lead, writing: "...the instinct that brought my ancestors here in 1635 and caused them to pioneer after the Revolution to the Susquehanna and later to the Missouri and Mississippi and along the Oregon Trail. The same instinct pushed me into my own pioneering activities, always a little bit ahead and never behind, always first."

Second, Helen always dreamt of becoming a great author, desperately wanting to write her own "great American novel." To accomplish this goal, she decided that she needed to see America from a different perspective: "I had wanted to be a great author since the time I was eight...I had read Edith Wharton who said that you have to stay abroad in a foreign country to get perspective before you can write about your own American experience. The contrast is what energizes your brain and talent...I knew I had to go overseas and stay there awhile, about a year or so. Otherwise I would never become a great author."

While in school, Helen studied Spanish, French, and Italian. Using this experience, she took the foreign service exams in hopes of traveling to Europe. She passed the clerk's exam but no positions were available. However, she later heard that it was often easier to get a job with a consulate after one's arrival in a foreign country.

Helen found a lucrative job in Salt Lake City as secretary to A. G. MacKenzie of the American Mining Congress. After mentioning her desire to travel to the Orient, her employer's brother wrote a letter to a friend who had connections in China. That letter proved quite helpful, as Helen was soon offered a job as a secretary to the president of an American company in Shanghai. Helen readily agreed and began making preparations to move to China. Before embarking, Helen secured a second job as a foreign correspondent for the Scripps–Canfield League, specifically hired to write articles about the "golden, glamorous Orient."

When Helen arrived in Shanghai in the fall of 1931, she was a naive, vivacious, enterprising twenty-three-year-old. She acclimated quickly to Shanghai's foreign community, writing book reviews for J. B. Powell's China Weekly Review, editing a social page in the Spectator and writing ad copy for some American companies. She also used her time to take French and Mandarin lessons.

On January 28, 1932, just a few months after Helen's arrival in China, the Japanese invaded Manchuria and attacked Shanghai. Even though she lived in the isolated and insulated foreign community of Shanghai, Helen nevertheless had a first-hand view of the Japanese bombing and the mass exodus of refugees.

On her first day in China, Helen promptly met a well-known American foreign correspondent, Edgar Snow. A long-time admirer, Helen had wished to imitate his career without duplicating his work. Prior to her departure, Helen had cut out and compiled all of Edgar's articles dealing with his travels and experiences in the Orient, and she gave him this collection on their first meeting. For Edgar, who had just returned form a trip to India, it was love at first sight. Prior to meeting Helen, Edgar was ready to leave Asia permanently; he was homesick for America and for his mother, who had recently passed away. But in Helen he found a fascinating personality that renewed his desire to remain in China. Helen found him intriguing as well: "I like him better than anyone else I have ever known, I believe, and he really does seem to have a good deal of talent, and a wonderful adventuring spirit." After a year and a half of courtship, Edgar Snow and Helen Foster were married on Christmas Day, 1932 in Tokyo, Japan and enjoyed a honeymoon cruise in the South Seas.

The Snows, like other foreigners in China, enjoyed extraterritorial status. That is, they were exempt from Chinese law and could go about as they wished without fear of harassment. This freedom gave them the opportunity to learn and publish information about China's contemporary left-wing culture. Using their extraterritorial freedom, Helen and Edgar helped translate Living China, the first modern left-wing literary work. Through their articles and books, the Snows significantly influenced foreigners' perceptions of China.

While Edgar taught Journalism at Yenching University, Helen enrolled in language, philosophy, and Chinese culture classes. After Japan's attack on Manchuria, Helen was instrumental in forming and directing the December 9th Student Movement at Yenching University that protested Chiang Kai-shek's neutrality toward the Japanese invasion. After the government's crackdown on college students, the Snows offered their home as a haven to student activists. Many of the students that they harbored would later become important leaders in the Chinese Communist Party. Expounding on the Snows' role in the December 9th Movement, Peter Rand wrote:

"Their [the Snows'] number one boy came to the living room to announce a visitor. 'It is a student from the Department of Journalism of Yenching University,' the servant told Helen Snow...He had come to see her husband, to find out whether it was true, as he had heard, that the Chinese were about to relinquish north China to the Japanese." Upon hearing the possibility, the student began to weep." "'Crying won't help,' Edgar Snow said. 'We've got to act.' It slipped out. He had not meant to say it. In that brief moment, Edgar Snow committed himself to China, along with Helen, his wife...What to do? Helen Snow suggested a student movement, like the New Youth Movement of May 4, 1919. They talked all afternoon...Chang [Chang Chao-lin] soon came back to see them, this time with friends. Inspired by the Snows' support, they formulated a plan." (Rand,"China Hands'" pp. 148-9, published by Simon & Schuster)

Because Helen was fiercely anti-fascist, and she believed Japan desired to spread Fascism throughout the Orient, she began to write and circulate a number of anti-fascist documents. She assisted in translating and editing student manifestos and telegrams calling for a united Chinese front against the Japanese invaders. Helen was proactive, "she always joined the parade and shouted with the Chinese students...against Japanese aggression. 'Down with Japanese imperialism!'" (Lu Cui, interview). Helen not only helped formulate a plan for the student demonstration, she also reported on the movement to various newspapers.

In 1937, Helen and Edgar edited and published a magazine, Democracy. Its goal was to ensure that "Christian ethics could reach the youth of China." Although Edgar was approached initially to do this, writing commitments compelled him to turn over the majority of the work to Helen. At that time, he was heavily involved in writing Red Star Over China. Helen convinced Edgar to go along with the idea of editing this journal as she would "do all the work if he'd just put him name on as editor and let us publish chapter from the book."

The last issue of Democracy was seized while on the presses by the Japanese when they invaded Beijing on July 7, 1937. Speaking of the Democracy's impact, Hubert Liang wrote: "It was immediate, sensational success, taking China's intellectual world by storm...Many of its articles were translated and published in Chinese periodicals...The Kuomintang took notice and protested against its pro-Communist leanings....Even the archenemy of China, Matsuoka, the Japan's Director of the South Manchurian Railways, for purposes best known to himself, bought up 400 copies of the first issue of "Democracy" to be sent back to Japan." (Letter from Hubert Liang, a prominent teacher in Yenching University's Journalism Department. He was a close friend of the Edgar and Helen Snow and assisted in both the creation of "Democracy" and the Chinese Industrial Cooperatives.)

At the time of Helen's arrival in China, little was known about Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) and the Communist Red Army. In early 1936, Edgar decided that he should travel into the Communist base area in the Northwest to investigate their aims, ideas, and programs. Edgar, after becoming the first journalist to break the Nationalist blockade and reach the Communists in Xi'an, returned to Beijing to write his best-selling book, Red Star Over China, which chronicled the life of Mao Zedong and the Long March.

A year after his trip, the Snow's decided that Helen should travel to Yan'an and further interview the Communists, especially women. Helen was only the second foreign woman and the eighth foreign journalist to enter this restricted area. On this trip, she wrote Inside Red China, a companion book to Edgar's Red Star Over China. Although her book never received the international acclaim of Edgar's book, her work substantially influenced both Chinese and foreign perceptions of China. It contained a number of valuable, insightful biographies of Communist leaders. The Communists in the Mao era were reticent to divulge their histories because they did not wish to be revered as heroes of the people, because they believed that the community, not the individual, was all-important. Additionally, after the Snows' books were translated into Chinese, they provided a valuable service to the Chinese masses, as they heretofore had little historical information on their leaders' lives. In addition to her writings, Helen photographed Yan'an before the Nationalists bombed it in 1938-1939. Helen's trip to the Red Army's stronghold also provided her with sufficient information for at least five other publications on China.

Yu Jianting, Helen's translator during her interviews with Mao Zedong, believed that Helen's work on her trip made important contributions. From these interviews, Helen obtained three things: a history of the Red Army, a letter of introduction as a war correspondent that enabled her to go to the front, and a request from Mao to introduce the CCP's "Ten Guiding Principles to Resist Against Japan and Save the Nation" to the Chinese people and to the rest of the world. The CCP's Ten Points were primarily formulated to "give the people the freedom of patriotic activity and the freedom to arm themselves." Helen willingly helped, as she believed the mobilization of the people was further evidence of China's heroic rise to Democracy.

As a token of appreciation for Edgar and Helen Snow's service rendered on behalf of China, Madame Sun Yat-sen hosted a farewell dinner in Hong Kong for the Snows before they left for the Philippines.

Helen considered herself "a parable of the middle path." Although not a Communist, she shared some of their ideals; she promoted socialism as well as democracy. She was an eclectic in many ways, believing in taking the best from all ideologies and attempting to synthesize them for the betterment of humanity.

In July, 1937, Japan attacked China and destroyed or commandeered over 90% of China's modern industrial equipment. Eventually, over 50 million refugees were forced into China's bleak interior. However, most large industry had been built in and around the coastal areas, leaving the interior without industry and with a rising population of unemployed, dislocated people. If China were to have any hope of continuing the war effort against Japan, she would need to rely on her own industrial capacity.

Helen spent many sleepless nights trying to conceive of how to "save China." One night she reinvented the "SELF-HELP PRODUCER INDUSTRIAL CO-OPERATIVES, with work points." She envisioned these cooperatives being organized in China's interior "guerilla areas." The refugees could be sent to assist with the resistance, or in the production of industrial goods to fight against the Japanese. After convincing Edgar and their colleague, Rewi Alley, to go along with the idea, the Chinese Industrial Cooperatives began to spring up throughout China.

To some observers, Helen was the impetus behind Edgar and his work with the Gung Ho Industrial Cooperative Movement. She envisioned that these cooperatives would combine the best of socialism and democracy. These cooperatives would become one of Helen's lifelong passions. Even after China closed itself to the West in 1950, she attempted to keep the cooperative spirit alive, promoting it in other underdeveloped nations and often taking a prominent fundraising role for the projects. In 1941, her book China Builds for Democracy: A Story of Cooperative Industry was published. Jawaharlal Nehru read Helen's book while in prison, and upon his release, he used her book as a prototype for starting cooperatives in India, which built over 50,000 cooperatives by 1972. Indira Gandhi also invited Helen Foster Snow to be a guest of honor during India's National Day celebrations, acknowledging the influence her book had exerted on Indian cooperatives.

Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt were similarly intrigued with the Snows' documentation of Red China. The Snows, upon their return from China, were invited to a White House dinner to discuss their work and experiences in the Orient. Helen served on the board of directors for the American Committee to Aid Chinese Industrial Cooperatives, on which Eleanor also served as a member of the advisory board.

Upon their return to America, the Snows purchased a home in rural Madison, Connecticut. It was here that Helen put together her notes from her Yan'an experience and became involved in genealogy and family history. Helen would never write the "great American novel" that she had always dreamed of writing. However, she would substantially contribute to the world's understanding of the Chinese Communist Movement. Her contributions to China transcended her years spent there.

With the closing of Red China in 1949, Helen, along with a number of former China Hands, were unable or unwilling to visit China until diplomatic relations were altered by President Nixon's 1972 visit. Helen, after a hiatus of over three decades, would return to China on two different occasions–greeted and celebrated wherever she went. Old friendships were renewed, former times were discussed–all paving the way for her later enshrinement in modern China. Awards were given and appreciation expressed as she and Edgar, now deceased, were lauded for their early efforts in aiding the Chinese people. Helen would continue to correspond with friends and high-level Chinese officials until her death.

After her return from the Orient, Helen spent her years involved in family history and genealogy. She also researched early New England history and wrote several self-published histories. She became involved in the Women's Movement, joining and remaining active in several societies, and wrote drama and poetry. She traveled widely, wrote essays, op-ed pieces, and remained active in humanitarian causes. She passed away in January 1997 in Madison, Connecticut–her home for six decades. Two memorial services were held: one in Connecticut and one in China. Both attracted many Chinese and American dignitaries who all paid homage to Helen's bridge-building efforts that spanned seven decades.

Helen's contributions have always been more appreciated in China than they have been in her native United States. For example, after her death in 1997, the Chinese government held a memorial service for her in the Great Hall of the People on Tiananmen Square in Beijing–an honor few foreigners have ever received. Part of a hospital is also named after her in China as well as a school in Xi'an.

Her legacy will be assured by virtue of the things she wrote, the contributions she made and the good will she built on both sides of the Pacific during her long and productive life.

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Series in MSS 2219

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John Murphy
Curator - 20th Century Western & Mormon Manuscripts